GLIPTINS

Glucose homeostasis in human body is regulated by number of hormones(insulin, glucagon etc.) through number of mechanisms.Gastrointestinal tract plays a vital role in maintaining normal blood glucose levels by secreting hormones like "glucagon like peptide" (GLP) and "glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide" (GIP).These hormones are known as incretins and regulate glucose homeostasis by:-

1. Stimulating insulin secretion.

2. Inhibiting glucagon synthesis.

3. Delaying gastric emptying.

Incretins secreted in gastrointestinal tract are rapidly inactivated by the enzyme called "dipeptidyl peptidase -4 (DPP-4).Gliptins are novel oral anti-diabetic medication that prolong the actions of endogenous incretins (GLP) by antagonising the effect of DPP-4.Gliptins that are currently in use include vildagliptin ,sitagliptin and saxagliptin.Gliptins are prescribed for Diabetes type-2 as monotherapy or in combination with other oral hypoglcemic drugs.Some of the adverse effects of Gliptins may include headache,dizziness,sore throat and running nose.

 
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